How Research Leads to Solutions for Struggling Learners

Have you or a loved one received a diagnosis of “developmental dyslexia” or “dyslexia”? Have you or a loved one struggled with learning to read – no matter what methods and curricula have been used? Research leads us to more answers to our questions and more solutions for those who struggle.

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How would you feel knowing your student would have more tools to succeed in life? What would it be like for him to learn fascinating information on his own? What would it be like to be carried off to a faraway time and place by reading a great story?

While many have considered dyslexia to be a combination of two deficits, the more current view, based on new research, providers believe that multiple deficits contribute to a diagnosis of “developmental dyslexia” will prove more helpful in helping those who struggle with reading.  Belief that “weaknesses in either the visual (rapid automatized naming -RAN) or the auditory (phonological awareness-PA) can cause dyslexia has led teachers to address these two areas.  Those with both deficits experienced severe difficulties in reading. (Wolf in Journal of Educational Psychology, 1999)

Now, more and more look to these areas and some additional areas: genetics, environmental, and perceptive/cognitive differences.  With the use of fMRIs we can see what is going on inside the human brain.  In a recent webinar, neuroscientist, Dr. Martha Burns, reported new research that confirms how these factors interact to present different kinds and degrees of learning challenges.

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Not surprisingly the research shows that reading and language share specific parts of the brain that includes both the visual and auditory areas. While searching for the cause and effect relationship within genetic factors, researchers learned that the brain of an infant show signs of genetic causes of learning challenges discovered later. In 2017, Gaab published findings that 50% of children with a sibling or parent with dyslexia were likely to also receive a diagnosis. This number rose to 68% in identical twins.

Finding the underlying cause leads us to specific strategies for the individual since all of these factors combine in different ways.  At Unlocking Learning Potential / Family Academy Online we address reading challenges using the neurodevelopmental approach ( www.unlockinglearningpotential.net) as well as with Scientific Learning’s Fast ForWord and Reading Assistant. Dr. Martha Burns, of Scientific Learning, says that Scientific Learning programs paired with an effective curriculum provide the best outcome for our children.

My name is Z.C. I began working with the learning specialist at Unlocking Learning Potential in 2009. By 2011 I could see how I had grown tremendously with my education and learning.  With the neurodevelopmental evaluation, I found out that I was far below my grade level academically. At first, I thought the activities were silly, futile and would not work, but as I kept doing them I started noticing the big differences in every area of my learning. I could read faster, comprehend more, my vocabulary increased, and my memory improved.” Z.C. graduated from high school in 2011.

Watch this video to learn more about these scientifically based solutions to learning challenges:

https://youtu.be/5BmNPJ9KdSo

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Dyslexia, ADHD or APD? Answers Based on Research

Unlocking Learning Potential

Have you been frustrated by trying to find the cause of your child’s learning struggles? Do you suspect that it could be Dyslexia or Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) or auditory processing disorder (APD)? I frequently hear from parents how difficult it is to get the right diagnosis and treatment for their child, especially when many learning or attention issues can look very similar.

What I’ve found is that many children exhibit symptoms similar to these:

  • Being easily distracted
  • Not engaging in class
  • Not following directions
  • Reversals
  • Slow, labored reading

 

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Customized solutions to learning challenges.

Teachers and parents may feel like their children are not trying, not paying attention, or being disruptive when in fact what’s happening is that they try to pay attention but can’t follow what’s being said and eventually give up. These children may also receive a diagnosis of ADD or ADHD or APD or even Dyslexia but fail to see progress.

If your child exhibits any of these difficulties, we can help you address the underlying causes for these learning struggles. We offer Scientific Learning’s online products (Fast ForWord, Reading Assistant) at a low cost. Also, we offer personal online Brain Training Assessments and Brain Training.

Contact me with questions at: Maggie@centerforneurodevelopment.com

Maggie Dail, MA

Learning Specialist

ICAN Certified Neurodevelopmentalist

More Info and Registration (click below):

Scientific Learning’s Fast ForWord and Reading Assistant

Info About All Of Our Services (click below):

Unlocking Learning Potential – Getting Started

Info from Scientific Learning

APD Whitepaper

Recognizing and Treating Children with Central Auditory Processing Disorders

Whitepaper by Maxine Young

This whitepaper is always a popular resource when we promote it. This is a great one to keep in your office or to email out in response to the email included above. This has also been added to the resources page.

APD/Fast ForWord® Research

Summary: After Fast ForWord use, children with language learning impairment (LLI) showed improved language skills and changes in patterns of neural activity that indicate “a change in cognitive control strategies.” This is consistent with other recent neuroscience studies on children with and without LLI (Stevens et al., 2008) and children with dyslexia (Temple et al., 2003). All of these studies suggest that the improved language and literacy performance seen after Fast ForWord use may result from better application of attentional and memory resources.

Summary: The authors concluded that measures of brain wave efficiency are not only correlated with auditory processing problems in children with language-based learning disabilities, but that the Fast ForWord Language program improves at least one measure of the brain wave efficiency and that is in turn correlated with improvements both in rapid auditory processing accuracy and also language skills.

Summary: After Fast ForWord use, the authors noted significant changes indicating plasticity in the auditory brainstem’s neural activity to speech stimuli.

Dyslexia Research: See The Difference

Amanda Miller’s Success Story: https://youtu.be/C5QBqgwJ8cM

The Stanford Study

Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexplained difficulty in reading, is associated with behavioral deficits in phonological processing. The results of this study suggest that a partial remediation of language-processing deficits, resulting in improved reading, ameliorates disrupted function in brain regions associated with phonological processing and produces additional compensatory activation in other brain regions.

The Harvard Study

This study showed effective remediation with the children with developmental dyslexia, and that disrupted brain responsiveness to rapid auditory transitions of non-verbal sounds may be a risk factor for developmental dyslexia. Effective remediation through Fast ForWord® can foster neural plasticity that enhances brain responsiveness to rapid auditory transitions as well as improves language and reading skills.

This is great research from highly reputable institutions, but they’re a bit heavy on the scientific/technical side of things. Here is some more user friendly information:  Read this

 

Brain Rule #12 – We are powerful and natural explorers. Brain Rules by Dr. John Medina

Medina’s final brain rule begins with an antidote of his two-year old son who used their pointing game to divert his dad’s attention while he explored “danger” resulting in a bee sting.  Even at two, this boy thought through the process of finding a way to explore.

We have learned much about the human mind in recent years. While decades ago, the idea of an infant brain being anything but a “tabula rasa” or “blank slate” was laughable. Now we know that infants come, in Medina’s words, “preloaded with lots of information-processing software.” (p. 264) In Scriptural terms, “We are fearfully and wonderfully made.” (Psalm 139)

Medina puts the drive to explore and learn along with our other drives: hunger, thirst and sex. “Babies seem preoccupied by the physical properties of objects. Babies younger than a year old will systematically analyze an object with every sensory weapon at their disposal. … In our household, this usually meant breaking stuff.” P. 265

“Hypothesis testing … is the way all babies gather information. They use a series of increasingly self-corrected ideas to figure out how the world works. They actively test their environment, much as a scientist would: Make a sensory observation, for a hypothesis about what is going on, design an experiment capable of testing the hypothesis, and then draw conclusions from the findings.” P. 265

Andy Meltzoff, in 1979, and John Medina, shortly after the birth of his son, found out that, infants (42 minutes old and 30 minutes old respectively) imitate their world. Both found that newborns, not having seen a tongue before, imitated when the adult stuck his tongue out at the baby.  Further, object permanence – knowing that an object remains even if hidden – develops at about 18 months of age. One such child spent 30 minutes covering and uncovering a cup, laughing loudly.

Between the ages of 14 and 18 months, babies believe everything is theirs and will fight for it. At some point it appears that this begins to change. In addition to testing “object permanence” and “imitation” young children test their parents and other adults. Often, they try temper tantrums to see what they can get from them. How parents respond determines, to a great extent, how long this lasts.

This drive to learn does not stop in childhood. While it was only recently that mainstream science recognized the concept of “neuroplasticity” it is now widely accepted.  In the areas of the brain where learning takes place, new neurons develop and are as malleable as those in a newborn.  Medina tells of two Nobel Prize winners at the University of Washington in their mid-seventies who were still actively exploring.

Dr. Medina’s mother provided an environment that encouraged his exploration. When he expressed an interest in dinosaurs, the house became a museum of dinosaurs. When that interest was replaced by planets and space so did the museum exhibit. “As children get older they find that learning not only brings them joy, but it also brings them mastery. Expertise in specific subjects breeds the confidence to take intellectual risks. If these kids don’t end up in the emergency room, they may end up with a Nobel Prize.” P. 273

Often this cycle is broken. “Fascination can become secondary to ‘What do I need to get the grade?’ But I also believe the curiosity instinct is so powerful that some people overcome society’s message to go to sleep intellectually, and they flourish anyway.” P. 273 “And I think we must do a better job of encouraging lifelong curiosity, in our workplaces and especially in our schools.” P. 274

John Medina believes that a great medical-school model has three components – teaching hospital, a faculty who work in the field and teach and research laboratories. For these reasons such a program is successful and can be a model for other training programs:

1)    Consistent exposure to the real world

2)    Consistent exposure to people who operate in the real world,

3)    Consistent exposure to practical research programs. P. 275-276

Our author envisions a college of education along these same lines where the teachers actually are teaching the young students in the real world while training the future teachers.  Semester classes would concentrate on the brain of the different aged children who the future teachers would teach.  Business school students would actually run a small business.

Medina’s summary of Rule #12: We are powerful and natural explorers.

  • Babies are the model of how we learn – not by passive reaction to the environment but by active testing through observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion.
  • Specific parts of the brain allow this scientific approach. The right prefrontal cortex looks for errors in our hypothesis (‘The sabor-toothed tiger is not harmless’), and an adjoining region tells us to change behavior (‘Run!’).
  • We can recognize and imitate behavior because of ‘mirror neurons’ scattered across the brain.
  • Some parts of our adult brains stay as malleable as a baby’s so we can create neurons and learn new things throughout our lives. P. 280 More information available at: www.brainrules.net

This brings to a close another book on Brain Research. If you have missed any of these, look for them on our blog: www.unlockinglearningpotential.com and our website: www.centerforneurodevelopment.com

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Brain Rules by Dr. John Medina   Brain Rule # 11 – Male and female brains are different.  

Scientists of both sexes agree that the parts of the brain responsible for decision-making (front and prefrontal cortex) are different in males and females. They have found that parts of the front and prefrontal cortex are fatter in women than men. Medina asks the question, “Is bigger better?” Further, there are differences in the limbic system which controls emotions and some types of learning. Other differences are found in the amygdala, responsible for emotions and memory. P. 247

The Battle of the Sexes – As early as Aristotle (384-332 BC) and Martin Luther (1483-1546 AD) there has been a sort of battle between the sexes. Medina quotes Aristotle as saying that females are a deformity. Further, a quote from Luther indicates that he believed girls to be weeds growing faster than boys, good crops. P. 248 In our life time a book, Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus: The Classic Guide to Understanding the Opposite Sex by John Gray continues this theme.

 

Modern research has led to a greater understanding, though we still have much to learn. Early we observed that mental retardation occurred more often in males than females. “Many of these pathologies are caused by mutations in any one of the 24 genes within the X chromosome. As you know, males have no backup X. If their X gets damaged, they have to live with the consequences. If a female’s X is damaged, she can often ignore the consequences. This represents to date one of the strongest pieces of evidence showing the involvement of X chromosomes in brain function and thus brain behavior.” Mental health providers see similar sex-based differences in their field. P. 249-250

Boys and girls are different.
Boys and girls are different.

 

“You have probably heard the term left brain vs. right brain. You may have heard that this underscores creative vs. analytic people. That’s a folk tale, the equivalent of saying the left side of a luxury liner is responsible for keeping the ship afloat, and the right is responsible for making it move through the water. Both sides are involved in both processes. That doesn’t mean the hemispheres are equal, however. The right side of the brain tends to remember the gist of an experience, and the left brain tends to remember the details.” P. 250

 

Larry Cahill and other researchers have found that “…women recall more emotional autobiographical events, more rapidly and with greater intensity, than men do. Women consistently report more vivid memories for emotionally important events such as a recent argument, a first date, or a vacation. Other studies show that, under stress, women tend to focus on nurturing their offspring, while men tend to withdraw.” P. 251

 

Men and women cement relationships differently. While women “maintain eye contact, and do a lot of talking” men “rarely face each other directly, preferring either parallel or oblique angles.” “Doing things physically together is the glue that holds their relationships intact.” P. 253

 

Getting the facts straight on emotions is essential for teachers and business professionals. The need to know:

1. “Emotions are useful. They make the brains pay attention.

2. Men and women process certain emotions differently.

3. The differences are a product of complex interactions between nature

and nurture.” P. 256

One teacher noticed a big gap in the performance of her students – girls did much better in the language arts and the boys better in math and science. By allowing the girls to learn math and science separately, the gap disappeared. Though further study is necessary, co-ed classes may hinder learning for all. In business this idea could also help productivity. P. 256-258

Dr. John Medina’s summary of Rule # 11: Male and female brains are different.

  •  “The X chromosome that males have one of and females have two of – though one acts as a backup – is a cognitive ‘hot spot,’ carrying an unusually large percentage of genes involved in brain manufacture.
  • Women are genetically more complex, because the active X chromosomes in their cells are a mix of Mom’s and Dad’s. Men’s X chromosomes all come from Mom, and their Y chromosome carries less than 100 genes, compared with about 1,500 for the X chromosome.
  • Men’s and women’s brains are different structurally and biochemically – men have a bigger amygdala and produce serotonin faster, for example –but we don’t know if those differences have significance.
  • Men and women respond differently to acute stress: Women activate the left hemisphere’s amygdala and remember the emotional details. Men use the right amygdala and get the gist.” P. 260

 

Brain Rules by Dr. John Medina Brain Rule # 10 Vision – Vision Trumps All Other Senses

VisionDr. Medina says, “Visual processing doesn’t just assist in the perception of our world. It dominates the perception of our world.” P. 224 He goes on to use basic biology to prove his point. Light enters the eye, is bent by the cornea, and focused by the lens. From there, the light strikes the retina sending signals to the vision center of brain. This incredibly complex process produces good vision and it has been thought that, the signals that arrive in the brain must be interpreted to produce a clear picture of what the brain thinks is there. However, it is now believed that the retina actually processes the information before sending it on to the brain. P. 225

Another amazing thing is that our eyes work together to send information on to the processing center and form one image, rather than two. Our brain processes this information and fills in the blanks using our past visual experience and we judge its accuracy.

“As babies begin to understand cause and effect relationships, we can determine how they pay attention by watching them stare at their world. The importance of this gazing behavior cannot be underestimated. Babies use visual cues to show they are paying attention to something –even though nobody taught them to do that. The conclusion is that babies come with a variety of preloaded software devoted to visual processing.” P. 235

Finally, Dr. Medina reminds teachers that they must use pictures and animation to maintain their students’ attention. p. 236-239

Before I give Medina’s summary, I want to mention that he spends time on all of the senses in general with an emphasis on smell in Rule 9 and now a whole rule, Rule 10, on vision. Our world today does a better job of developing visual processing because of all of the visual stimuli that we receive from the beginning of life and more as time continues. Our forefathers had a more highly developed auditory processing system, meaning that people could sit and listen for greater time frames without the visual aids that we use today. I wonder why Medina did not include more emphasis on auditory processing in his Brain Rules. Many of our students who struggle have poorly developed auditory systems.

“Brain Rule 10 – Vision trumps all other senses.

  • Vision is by far our most dominant sense, taking up half of our brain’s resources.
  • What we see is only what our brain tells us we see, and it’s not 100 percent accurate.
  • The visual analysis we do has many steps. The retina assembles photons into little movie like streams of information. The visual cortex processes these streams, some areas registering motion, others registering color, etc. Finally, we combine that information back together so we can see.
  • We learn and remember best through pictures, not through written or spoken words.” P. 240

For more information: www.brainrules.net

Brain Rules by Dr. John Medina – Brain Rule # 9 – Stimulate More of the Senses

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When our brains are neurologically organized and sensory input is received accurately, they process an incredible amount of input simultaneously.  In this rule, Dr. Medina concentrates primarily on the sense of smell which surprisingly plays a big part in our lives. It is the one sense that cannot be turned off.  The others must ask the thalamus for permission to transmit the sensation. We often remember things based upon an odor that our brains associated with an event.  Most of this takes place in association cortices which are “specialized areas that exist throughout the brain, including the parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes.”  They function as bridges between the sensory and motor areas. P. 204

This integration of sensory input proceeds through three steps: 1) sensation; 2) routing and 3) perception. Once the stimulus makes its way to the appropriate place, “various senses start merging their information. These integrated signals are sent to increasingly complex areas of the brain…and we begin to perceive what our senses have given us.” P. 203

For learning multisensory input is more efficient than unisensory input. Review’s note: If a student has difficulty with the the reception of sensory input and demonstrates sensory overload, the system must be normalized through neurodevelopmental activities.

Multisensory Rules:

1)    Multimedia principle – words and pictures are better than words alone.

2)    Temporal contiguity principle – words and pictures shown simultaneously are better than successively.

3)    Spatial contiguity principle – words and pictures that are near to each other are better than apart.

4)    Coherence principle – excluded extraneous material is better than included extraneous material.

5)    Modality principle – narrated animation is better than animation with written text.

“…researchers have found that certain types of memory are exquisitely sensitive to smells and other types of nearly impenetrable. Odors appear to do their finest work” … to retrieve emotional memories.  “Odors are not so good at retrieving declarative memory.”  P. 212 However, if we add an odor during a presentation of information, it adds an emotion to the mix and a memory forms.

”Smells have an unusual power to bring back memories maybe because smell signals bypass the thalamus and heads straight to their destinations which include that supervisor of emotions known as the amygdala.” P. 219

Brain Rules by Dr. John Medina Rule # 8: Stressed brains don’t work the same way.

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According to researchers Jeansok Kim and David Diamond, stress requires three components:

  1. Aroused physiological response
  2. Stressor perceived as aversive
  3. Person does not feel in control p. 173-174

Adrenaline floods the system during the physiological response. Along with adrenaline, cortisol also is released. These hormones form the “elite strike force” against stressors. We would die without these hormones, but over time an overload can occur. Acute responses are necessary and beneficial, but chronic can lead to a break down in the immune system. Stress affects the brain in the same way.

“Specifically, stress hurts declarative memory (things you can declare) and executive function (the type of thinking that involves problem solving). Those, of course, are skills needed to excel in school and business.” P. 178

When too many of these stress hormones hang around too long, as in chronic stress, learning is negatively affected. Chronic stress can lead to depression. “Depression is a deregulation of thought processes, including memory, language, quantitative reasoning, fluid intelligence, and spatial perception.” P 180

A model described in the book “says that stress, left alone, is neither harmful nor toxic. Whether stress becomes damaging is the result of a complex interaction between the outside world and our physiological capacity to manage the stress.” P. 182

Stress can injure productivity on the job in the following ways:

  1. Natural improvisatory instincts
  2. Health care costs rise.
  3. Workers who burn out often lose their jobs.

Stress in a marriage can affect how the children function in school. Medina proposes parent training early in the lives of their children as well as free family counseling and day care. Questions to ask: Who is qualified to do this “parent training”? What criteria is used to conduct this parent training? Also, how do we define success?

We can certainly learn from this brain rule, but I would caution rushing to “free” services if these are provided by any government agency. However, we can support the family to develop a wholesome environment for children. Examples of private efforts: Care Net Pregnancy and Family Services provide free and confidential services including: providing support for those in unplanned pregnancies, teaching Smart Love and Smart Freedom to young people, parenting classes and more. www.carenetps.org Also, Family Academy / Academy Northwest support Family Directed Education. www.familyacademy.org and www.academynorthwest.org

Highlights of Webinar by Dr. Martha Burns” Neurobiology of Autism (Sponsored by Scientific Learning)

 

Dr. Burns covered recent research on the brains of individuals with autism. While she discussed some complicated genetic factors one thing that researchers have observed is that the brain of individuals with autism have a unique development of long trace fibers. This white matter runs along divisions of the different lobes and actually intersects with many areas of the brain.

Burns reported that research supports the following contributing factors to autism: age of parents, environmental chemicals and other neurotoxins, immune factors. What surprised me was her denial that any research connected vaccinations as a contributing factor.

Mind Institute is developing a test that will identify antibodies that exist in some, but not all individuals on the autism spectrum. Others are working on a scan of the eye that can identify those who are at risk in the early months of life. Early identification and intervention produce hope for families.

Researchers also recognized value in specific therapies’ as well as computer software (such as Fast ForWord).While computer software provides a valuable contribution other areas of intervention must include: perceptual and sensory.

More and more new research leads to a greater understanding of the underlying causes of autism spectrum disorders. Not only does it explain why new technologies work, it also explains why interventions used as early as the 1930s by founders of the neurodevelopmental approach work. All of this leads to more effective interventions and hope for families.

New and Continuing Learning Accelorators Through Family Academy Online

Last December, we announced that Family Academy Online planned to offer Scientific Learning’s Fast ForWord this year. Well, we did that in February. We are currently in our 4th ten week session. Thirteen different students have participated for one or more sessions.   

 


One parent who has had their children in the program since February reports, “My child has taken off with reading.” Another likes the option of having a child work a little more independently with the assurance that the time is spent productively. Even a mom whose son just began in September is thrilled with progress just a few weeks into the program. 

Scientific Learning’s Fast ForWord develops and strengthens memory, attention, processing rate, and sequencing – the cognitive skills essential for reading. By strengthening these skills, we see improvement in a wide range of critical thinking and reading skills such as phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, decoding working memory, syntax, grammar, and other skills necessary to learn how to read or to become a better reader. In over 250 studies, research indicates that learners can see achievement gains of 1-2 years in as little as 8-12 weeks. While Fast ForWord is a literacy based program, studies that monitor progress confirm that it also improves other areas because Fast ForWord teaches one how to learn. Fast ForWord is definitely based on the now, well accepted concept of neuroplasticity that extends throughout life. Interactive activities of this program follow the important concepts of short, frequent, intense (i.e. full focus) that distinguish neuroplasticity. Fast ForWord is a learning accelerator with recommended protocols of 30 – 50 minutes 5 times a week (ideally the daily sessions are spread throughout the day in 10-15 minutes sessions.)

Now in November, we are adding Scientific Learning’s Reading Assistant which improves reading fluency and comprehension. Once a student has progressed far enough in the Fast ForWord products, we have the option of moving them into Reading Assistant for one or more ten week session. Our next Fast ForWord / Reading Assistant session begins November 18. Those interested should contact us as soon as possible to get on the list.

We also provide online Brain Training. This option begins with an assessment and then the student and parent have frequent video conferencing (some time with student and some time with parent to help with brain training at home). For example our neurodevelopmentalist meets with the family two times a week for 30 minutes. Further assessment occurs as the ND guides the parents in observations at home, allowing the ND to build an individualized neurodevelopmental plan in concert with the parent at a pace that fits the family’s schedule. \

To learn more follow the Family Academy Online tab to the Getting Started tab on www.centerforneurodevelopment.com. Steps will include free information in video seminars and articles. Finally, the parent submits a client history form and schedules a 30 minute free phone or Skype consultation to get questions answered and to discuss the different options.

Questions?  Call Maggie Dail 253.581.1588 or email at mdail@familyacademy.org. For more information about the products visit:  www.scilearn.com

Brain Rules by Dr. John Medina Brain Rule # 7b – Sleep Well, Think Well

Dr. John Medina continues his thoughts on Sleep in the remainder of this chapter. See Brain Rules 7a for the previous part of the chapter..

Sadly, Medina cannot answer this question definitively; How much sleep do we need? There are so many variables including: age, gender, pregnancy, puberty, etc. He proposes that a better question would be: How much sleep don’t we need? Or, at what point would the amount of sleep we get disrupt what we do during our waking hours? P. 158-169

Perhaps we should follow the example of our former president, LBJ, who apparently locked his door, changed into his pajamas during the day to take a 30 minute nap. Or maybe we should have a “siesta” during our work day as other cultures practice? Some researchers found that a 26 or 30 minute nap could increase productivity during the day and another study found that a 45 minutes nap would have the same benefit. P. 158-160

Some studies verify that Sleep Loss = Brain Drain. In one study a successful female student getting under seven hours of sleep during the week and only 40 minutes more on the weekend scored lower than standardized tests. In another study soldiers responsible for complex equipment lost 30 percent proficiency after just one lost night of sleep. After two nights of lost sleep, the lose of performance stretched to 60 percent. In yet other studies considerable loss of function was documented after less than six hours of sleep each night for five days study participants suffered loss of cognitive abilities equal to a continual 48 hour sleep deprivation. P. 162-165

Given that the USA loses $100 billion each year in productivity due to sleep deprivations,  Dr. John Medina makes the following recommendations:

  1. Match chronotypes  – since there are measurement tools to determine this, schedules can be determined by what type the individual is.
  2. Promote naps – provide time and place for naps in the work or school day.
  3. Try Sleeping on it –don’t make decisions or do important work without proper sleep. P. 165-167

Dr. John Medina summarizes Brain Rule 7 – Sleep Well, Think Well

  • “The brain is in a constant state of tension between cells and chemicals that try to put you to sleep and cells and chemicals that try to keep you awake.
  • The neurons of your brain show vigorous rhythmical activity when you’re asleep –– perhaps replaying what you learned that day.
  • Loss of sleep hurts attention, executive function, working memory, mood, quantitative skills, logical reasoning, and even mo